A collection of (Quora) answers on object-orientation

In my time on Quora.com, I’ve answered a bunch of questions on object-oriented programming (OOP). In giving my answers, I’ve tried my best to hew as closely as I can to what I’ve understood of Alan Kay’s older notion of OOP from Smalltalk. The theme of most of them is, “What you think is OOP is not OOP.” I did this partly because it’s what’s most familiar to me, and partly because writing about it helped me think clearer thoughts about this older notion. I hoped that other Quora readers would be jostled out of their sense of complacency about OO architecture, and it seems I succeeded in doing that with a few of them. I’ve had the thought recently that I should share some of my answers on this topic with readers on here, since they are more specific descriptions than what I’ve shared previously. I’ve linked to these answers below (they are titled as the questions to which I responded).

What is Alan Kay’s definition of object-oriented? (Quora member Andrea Ferro had a good answer to this as well.)

A big thing I realized while writing this answer is that Kay’s notion of OOP doesn’t really have to do with a specific programming language, or a programming “paradigm.” As I said in my answer, it’s a method of system organization. One can use an object-oriented methodology in setting up a server farm. It’s just that Kay has used the same idea in isolating and localizing code, and setting up a system of communication within an operating system.

Another idea that had been creeping into my brain as I answered questions on OOP is that his notion of interfaces was really an abstraction. Interfaces were the true types in his message passing notion of OOP, and interfaces can and should span classes. So, types were supposed to span classes as well! The image that came to mind is that interfaces can be thought to sit between communicating objects. Messages, in a sense, pass through them, to dispatch logic in the receiving object, which then determines what actual functionality is executed as a result. Even the concept of behavior is an abstraction, a step removed from classes, because the whole idea of interfaces is that you can change the class that carries out a behavior with a completely new implementation (supporting the same interface), and the expected behavior for it will be exactly the same. In one of my answers I said that objects in OOP “emulate” behavior. That word choice was deliberate.

This seemed to finally make more sense for me than it ever had before about why Kay said that OOP is about what goes on between objects, not what goes on with the objects themselves (which are just endpoints for messages). The abstraction is interstitial, in the messaging (which is passed between objects), and the interfaces.

This is a conceptual description. The way interfaces were implemented in Smalltalk were as collections of methods in classes. They were strictly a “gentleman’s agreement,” both in terms of the messages to which they matched, and their behavior. They did not have any sort of type identifiers, except for programmers recognizing a collection of method headers (and their concomitant behaviors) as an interface.

Are utility classes good OO design?

Object-Oriented Programming: In layman’s terms, what is the difference between abstraction, encapsulation and information hiding?

What is the philosophical genesis of object-oriented programming methodology?

Why are C# and Java not considered as Object Oriented Language compared to the original concept by Alan Kay?

The above answer also applies to C++.

What does Alan Kay mean when he said: “OOP to me means only messaging, local retention and protection and hiding of state-process, and extreme late-binding of all things. It can be done in Smalltalk and in LISP”?

What does Darwin’s theory of evolution bring to object oriented programming methodology?

This last answer gets to what I think are some really interesting thoughts that one can have about OOP. I posted a video in my answer from a presentation by philosopher Daniel Dennet on “Free Will Determinism and Evolution.” Dennet takes an interesting approach to philosophy. He seems almost like a scientist, but not quite. In this presentation, he uses Conway’s game of “life” to illustrate a point about free will in complex, very, very, very large scale systems. He proposes a theory that determinism is necessary for free will (not contrary to it), and that as systems survive, evolve, and grow, free will becomes more and more possible, whereby multiple systems that are given the same inputs will make different decisions (once they reach a structured complexity that makes it possible for them to make what could be called  “decisions”). I got the distinct impression after watching this that this idea has implications for where object-orientation can go in the direction of artificial intelligence. It’s hard for me to say what this would require of objects, though.

What resources does Alan Kay recommend for learning real object oriented programming?

Related post:

The necessary ingredients for computer science – If you really want to understand OOP–what it was in answer to, and what it can be, you must understand this perspective!

—Mark Miller, https://tekkie.wordpress.com

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3 thoughts on “A collection of (Quora) answers on object-orientation

  1. Hi Mark,

    Great post (and perfect timing, since I’ve been in research mode lately). I’ve just had time to get into the first question, but two things caught my attention. That theme of data as code, and code as data, plays out a lot in programming, but also in life as well. It’s essentially verbs and nouns, or 3D space and time. Possibly static vs. dynamic as well. It shows up so often that it is clearly some form of physical characteristic of our universe, or at least a product of the way we observe it. Way back when Java was first introduced they seemed to be headed in a direction where you could instatiate an object, then send it to someone else to use. If they had continued down that remote object path it seems they might have gotten really close to what Alan visualized. Another near example was the OODBs like ObjectStore. you just inherent from Persistence, and wrap the interaction in a transaction. Then the object is quietly persistened automatically. A while ago I manged to get that same paradigm to play put in Hibernate, but the wrapper code was a bit tricky.

    The weakness in any code as data scheme has been the volitily of the code. It can and does change rapidly, causing upgrading issues. Data however often contains implicit dependencies embedded into it, such that it is not fully usable without the associated code. The two are tighly bound, yet somewhat independent. As for data as code examples, regular expressions come to mind, maybe. Any intermediate data-structure or table driven goes goes the other way.

    So your last part of your post on SICP ends with you saying that:

    “I think the reason for this complexity is, as Alan Kay has said, we haven’t figured out what computing is yet.”

    That’s exactly where I have been stuck lately. I see computation as a means of stepping through the construction of complex relationships between symbolic objects at various different meta-levels of abstraction, but I can’t seem to reconcile that perspective with a view of how things are modelled as formal systems with respect to time. By way of analogy, it’s like I know how to build stuff in a higher up language like Java, but can’t imagine how it would run (or how to recreate it) in a lower level like assembler. Each perspective is entirely indepedent of each other, although I know they are all built on, and explaining the same underlying entities.

    Paul.

  2. HI Paul.

    It shows up so often that it is clearly some form of physical characteristic of our universe, or at least a product of the way we observe it.

    I’d go more with the latter. We can know something about the physical characteristics of the Universe (within some bounds), and how we observe it, but we will never know with certainty what the actual physical characteristics are.

    Re. code as data

    I guess what you’re saying is that the concept of data is significantly tied to relationships between symbolic entities, and that those relationships can become tenuous, or break, as the code that represents those entities is modified.

    It seems to me, though, that the reason you’re seeing that problem is that the organizations implementing the scheme are not understanding the idea I described with object orientation, which is that to outside entities the implementation shouldn’t matter. What matters is the expected behavior. If a relationship breaks, it’s because whatever was exhibiting the expected behavior before is no longer doing that.

    Other qualities that get in the way is our use of type tags to talk about associations between data and code, and our use of symbols as means of referencing functionality (most languages have this issue). Even if nothing about the essential qualities of a function changes, just changing its name, or changing the parameters it accepts, or changing the type it returns, causes problems for everything else that uses it. This is part of the reason Smalltalk was designed the way it was. The only thing that’s recognized as a type in that sphere is an interface.

    Re. data as code

    “Code as data” and “data as code” were notions that I’d heard about since I was in college, and it wasn’t until I got to that section in SICP that I felt like I finally understood what “code as data” meant.

    Every time I think about “data as code,” I think about code generation. It was a minor revelation to do some 6502 assembly programming a couple years ago, to take a look at the generated machine code, and to fully realize, “It’s all just numbers.” I mean, I knew for many years that machine code was “just numbers,” but to finally see the mapping of the assembly code to the numbers, going opcode by opcode, data element by data element, to really convince myself that all the computer was really dealing with was numbers (and even that’s an abstraction of a closer-to-reality description that it’s all patterns of voltages), but that some numbers are not “data” to the computer, but “signals” to execute internal functions to the processor that then processes what it considers data. Nevertheless, I could think of all of it as “data,” and the processor could “think” of it as “code.” What seems to help (with me, anyway) in relating to the concept is understanding that the processor makes different decisions about what gets computed, what computations are done, and where the result gets stored, depending on what internal state it’s in. Another realization I made is that the processor does a lot of what we think of as non-computational stuff (like pushing elements on a stack (moving the stack pointer), or branching to an address (changing the program counter)) by using its Arithmetic Logic Unit.

    Likewise, if you program in Lisp, or some variant, the point about “data as code” comes across quickly once you get into exploring eval and apply, or even creating your own macros.

    but I can’t seem to reconcile that perspective with a view of how things are modelled as formal systems with respect to time.

    I don’t know if this would help, but what you say here brings to mind John McCarthy’s situation calculus. From what I remember, it’s about modeling processes temporally.

  3. My late night odd thought about code vs. data is that if you remove (or freeze) time from code you have data. Going the other way then if you introduce some time element into the data, you should get back to code. Freeze the computer and dump the code as data. Read it back, then start executing it as code again. The one caveat is that code itself is a serialization of the states and complex relationships expressible at runtime, so it would need to be pumped up from a single dimension to multiple ones.

    Situational calculus does help a bit. It’s like turning my intuitive data-structure relationship on it’s side so that progessions of actions are just nouns instead of verbs. I’ll have to chew on that for a bit 🙂

    Getting back to Alan’s vision of OO, another late night thought I was having was to model objects as single independent threads. That is, each object acts as a stand-alone TM, and can only have it’s methods called serially (to avoid concurrency). In that sense it is rather like mixing FBP with OO, but driving the paradigm from the object side as opposed to pipes. Messages would then be passed back and forth on say a message queue, but it wouldn’t be as resource intensive as it sounds since most messages would just be references to other objects in the same computational space (but possibly be distributed on different hardware). For fun, make each object have a unique immutable key and use instatiation as the means of software deployment (to persistence first, then into runtime). Thus objects would be live serialized actors trading back and forth other object references. Still upgrades would remain a problem given that the system and data models will evolve over time, so there would need to be some external automated means of instantiating an object with an existing key that would effectively seek out its predecessor, absorb its current data and then eliminate it (or some less violent, but equally effective approach). To support the distributed references the keys would be tied to an interface spec, not an absolute symbolic name. That would push programmers to wrap older stuff if they wanted to change the spec quickly. But also given that the spec is the general behavioural identifier, allow intrinsic polymorphism (leaving inherence as really a compile-time issue, not a runtime one). This would also encapsulate any data/code dependencies since at runtime, on any machine, the two would always move together. The other benefit is that programmers would no longer be able to do half-baked OO, since they really only ever deploy one object at a time. The most used design pattern would then probably switch to fly-weights (to avoid over consuming resources).

    Paul.

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