Jack Tramiel has passed away

Jack Tramiel died on April 8, at the age of 83. This isn’t going to rank real high on the radar of too many people, but it was notable to me, because I remember a bit about Jack.

I don’t know much about Jack’s history, and the history of Commodore. What I remember is that Jack was a Polish immigrant. He founded Commodore Business Machines in the 1950s, as a typewriter parts company. It eventually got into selling electronic calculators. It got into the computer market in the late 1970s. I think its first computer was the Commodore PET. Jack later said that he didn’t get into the computer business because he particularly loved the concept. He just did it to make money.

The Commodore 64, from Wikipedia

While Apple Computer pioneered high end personal computing, Commodore pioneered the low end of that market. Jack was I think the first to have the concept of profiting by selling computers in volume, at prices that consumers could afford. The company’s first popular, low-priced computer was the VIC-20. Its Commodore 64 computer was wildly popular. It was sold in toy and department stores, for what was then a bargain basement price of about $550. It was the most widely sold computer of its era.

Tramiel was said to be ruthless, wanting to crush all his competitors. He largely succeeded at it. When I say this, you have to understand that back in the late 70s, up to the mid-80s, the computer market was really separated into the two strata of high-end and low-end. While there were people who bought high-end computers to use at home, most of them were bought by schools and businesses. At that time, computers like Commodore’s were mainly bought for use at home, and it mainly competed against other computer manufacturers in the home market. Commodore began to make a foray into the high-end market with its Amiga computer, which came out in 1985, but its influence was not as widespread in that market as was technology from IBM, Microsoft, and Apple.

The consumer division of Atari (which was owned by Warner Communications) and Commodore were fierce rivals in the low-end market. In a surprising move, Jack left Commodore in 1984, and bought Atari from Warner. He made a go of it with Atari for another 12 years, first coming out with the Atari ST computer, its first 16-bit model, and then other models like the TT030, and the Falcon 030, the last computer they made. Atari also made a foray into the high-end market with its 16- and 32-bit line, but it had a similar profile as Commodore’s Amiga. It was accepted as a niche machine.

Here’s a British interview I found on YouTube with Jack Tramiel from around 1984/85, introducing Atari’s new line of 8- and 16-bit machines.

When Jack bought Atari, there was some credence given to the idea that he would do for Atari what he had done for Commodore, making it a dominant player, crushing all its rivals. It didn’t even get close to that, at least in the U.S. Atari did very well for several years in Europe, becoming one of the dominant computer manufacturers there, but the U.S. market was already changing. By the time Tramiel bought the company, consumers were beginning to “standardize” on the IBM PC, and later PC clones, facilitated by Microsoft’s operating system, MS-DOS. Atari admitted defeat in the computer market in 1993, but continued to make a go of it in the consumer video game business, with the Atari Lynx color portable game system, and the Jaguar 64-bit console.

Commodore went into bankruptcy in 1994. Its intellectual property has since been acquired and used by a couple companies.

Atari was on its last legs in 1996. It had been whittled down to nothing, just a few employees. Atari’s intellectual property was sold to a disk drive manufacturer, JTS, that year. It was bought and sold a couple times after that. It eventually “landed” with a company called Infogrames around the year 2000. They changed their name to “Atari” in 2003, and continue to sell video games under the Atari label.

Tramiel went into retirement after selling Atari. He later joked, in a self-effacing way, “I wanted to destroy Atari, and I did!”

Well, anyway, I enjoyed Atari’s computers. I still have a 130XE and a Mega STe (both models from the Tramiel era) that I’ve kept in storage. Maybe one of these days I’ll donate my Mega STe to some computer museum that wants it. I’ve promised myself that one of these days I’m going to drag out the 130XE and transfer all my old Atari disks so I can run the old stuff on an emulator when I want to reminisce. I did that with my STe stuff about 10 years ago. Ah memories…

Related posts: Reminiscing, Part 4A history of the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga

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3 thoughts on “Jack Tramiel has passed away

  1. @sterling:

    I knew about assembly almost from the time I started programming, but I was intimidated by the horror stories I heard about people burning out a chip inside their computer (I think this was in some Commodore PET model) or their program wandering off into “uncharted” memory and corrupting data on their floppy disk. Plus, I learned that you had to enter a lot more instructions to get anything done, and my sense of that was I would have to deal with a lot of complexity, and it would be more than I could handle. So I stuck with Basic for several years. My sense of it was, “Why so much work for so little gain,” though I always admired the power that assembly programmers were able to harness.

    There was a point where my fear of it became crippling. In a couple instances I kind of realized that the best solution for what I was trying to do was to get into system level programming, rather than trying to accomplish it in Basic. Rather than try to go that route, I made life harder for myself.

    I didn’t get into assembler until college. I got a book on Atari Assembler, and I read through it, but I never tried actually programming 6502 assembler. I had a course in Motorola 68000 assembler instead. After having experienced it, I wondered what I was so afraid of. Yeah, there were a lot of instructions to accomplish anything, but I had a lot more control over what happened than I did in any HLL, and ironically I was less likely to create bugs! It made me wish I had gotten into it sooner.

  2. d most of my assembler programming on a Data General Eclipse C-330. Another fellow and I wrote a mark-sense card reader driver for that beast, because the driver from DG didn’t handle missing columns well (it would read the first column off the next card — not good for test scores). Then we wrote a print spooling system that would use serial printers over RS-232. Up until then, DG only supported parallel line-printers. We wrote all the queue management, error handling, job interrupts, everything in assembler. Fun times.

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